Irregular periods are faced by many women. Whereas it is an occasional occurrence in some, it is a routine problem for a small group of women.
Normal menstrual cycle in women is 24-35 days. This is determined by the hormonal rhythm of the female in the month. However at times the phase is disturbed by issues like stress (you have exams or a tragedy has occurred in the family). Hormones like Thyroid and Prolactin also have their influence and hence should be checked if there is menstrual irregularity.
One of the significant cause of irregular cycles is PCOD. In this the hormonal shifts which normally should occur and cause ovulation does not happen, instead the hormones remain steady and there is no egg development (ovulation). Such females have a problem conceiving and their treatment should be addressed to the concern which they have , like whether it is for irregular periods or Infertility or skin problems like acne ,facial hair growth.
Occasionally problems related to Uterus (womb) present with irregular periods. Muscular lumps in uterus also known as Fibroids or Myomas are present is almost 30 % of women but do not pose any significant symptoms when they are small in size and present in outer layers of the uterus. When the fibroids come into the inner cavity of the uterus they give rise to severe period pain and heavy bleeding.
Polyps are also soft lumps in the uterine cavity and may lead to intermittent bleeding in between periods.
Thick endometrium (Endometrial hyperplasia) results from long periods of amenorrhea( absence of menses). The internal uterine layer thickens up over time and leads to skipping of periods , ultimately when it is too thick to self sustain it gets shed in thick pieces with heavy bleeding. If it happens in an elderly woman an examination of the layer would be necessary to rule out pre cancerous changes.
Some infections also erode the internal layer of the uterus and give rise to irregular periods and may lead to adhesions bands in the cavity also known as adhesions or fibrosis which can really damage the internal uterine layer and getting pregnant will be a big challenge.
Use of drugs like steroids, hormonal pills , or medications for emergency contraception.
Proper evaluation is a must before starting treatment .Most of the problems can be treated medically and very few require.
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