What are the risks of chickenpox during pregnancy?
Chickenpox during pregnancy can cause complications, both for the pregnant woman and the unborn baby. However, the actual risk of any complications occurring is low.
It's rare to get chickenpox when you're pregnant. In the UK, it's estimated that just 3 in every 1,000 women (0.3%) catch chickenpox during pregnancy.
Most pregnant women who get chickenpox recover, with no;harmful effects on the baby.
When to get medical advice
Seek advice from your GP or midwife immediately if you're pregnant and:
▪you think you may have chickenpox
▪either you've never had chickenpox or you're not sure, and you've been near someone that has it (even if you have no rash or other symptoms)
▪you get chickenpox within seven days of giving birth.
Complications for pregnant women
You have a higher risk of complications from chickenpox if you're pregnant and:
▪have a lung condition, such as bronchitis or emphysema
▪are taking or have taken steroids during the;last three months
▪are more than 20 weeks pregnant
There is a small risk of complications in;pregnant women with chickenpox. These are rare and include:;
▪pneumonia;(inflammation of the lungs)
▪encephalitis;(inflammation of the brain)
▪;hepatitis;(inflammation of the liver);
Complications that arise from catching chickenpox during pregnancy can be fatal. However, with antiviral therapy and improved intensive care, this is very rare.
Complications for the unborn baby
Complications that can affect the unborn baby vary, depending on how many weeks pregnant you are. If you catch chickenpox:
▪Before 28 weeks pregnant: there's no evidence you are at increased risk of suffering a miscarriage. However, there's a small risk your baby could develop foetal varicella syndrome (FVS). FVS can damage the baby's skin, eyes, legs, arms, brain, bladder or bowel.
▪Between weeks 28 and 36 of pregnancy: the virus stays in the baby's body but doesn't cause any symptoms. However, it may become active again in the first few years of the baby's life, causing shingles.
▪After 36 weeks of pregnancy:;your baby may be infected and could be born with chickenpox.
Complications for the newborn baby
Your;baby may develop severe chickenpox and will need treatment if you catch it:
▪around the time of birth and the baby is born within seven days of your rash developing
▪up to seven days after giving birth.
How is chickenpox treated during pregnancy?
Your treatment will depend on the stage of pregnancy and your symptoms. If you're pregnant and think you have chickenpox, contact your GP, midwife or NHS 111 immediately. Chickenpox can cause complications for both the pregnant mother and her baby, so you should get medical advice as soon as possible.
You may be offered aciclovir, an antiviral medicine, which should be given within 24 hours of the chickenpox rash appearing. Aciclovir doesn’t cure chickenpox, but it can make the symptoms, such as fever, less severe and help to prevent complications.
Aciclovir is usually only recommended if you’re more than 20 weeks pregnant, but in some cases, your doctor may suggest it if you’re less than 20 weeks pregnant. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.
To help relieve your symptoms, you can try the following:
▪drink plenty of fluids
▪take paracetamol to lower a temperature or help with pain
▪use calamine lotion to help relieve any itching
Will I need to go to hospital?
If you are pregnant, have chickenpox and develop any of these symptoms, you should be admitted to hospital:
▪chest and breathing problems
▪headache, drowsiness, vomiting or feeling sick
▪vaginal bleedinga rash that is bleeding
▪a severe rash
These symptoms are a sign that you may be developing complications of chickenpox and need specialist care.
Will my baby need to be treated?
Once you have chickenpox, there’s no treatment that can prevent your baby from getting chickenpox in the uterus.
After the birth, your GP may consider treating your baby with chickenpox antibodies called varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG), if:
▪your baby is born within seven days of you developing a chickenpox rash
▪you develop a chickenpox rash within seven days of giving birth.
▪your baby is exposed to chickenpox or shingles within seven days of birth and they are not immune to the chickenpox virus; if your newborn baby develops chickenpox, your GP may treat them with aciclovir.