<strong>Endometriosis: A Detailed Overview</strong>

Endometriosis: A Detailed Overview

9 Jan 2023 | 5 min Read

Nidhi Pandey

Author | 47 Articles

In America, between 2-10% of women of reproductive age are thought to have endometriosis, a prevalent gynaecological ailment. The word “endometrium,” the tissue that borders the uterus, is where the term “endometrial disease” originates. If a woman does not become pregnant, this tissue accumulates during her typical menstrual cycle and is lost. Endometriosis patients develop tissue outside of their uterus that resembles and behaves like endometrial tissue, typically on other reproductive organs in the pelvic or the abdominal cavity. Let’s learn more about endometriosis with its detailed overview in this article.

Causes Of Endometriosis

The origin of endometriosis is still a mystery. According to one idea, part of the tissue backs up into the abdomen during menstruation: a process known as “reverse menstruation,” where it attaches and develops. According to research, endometrial tissue could move through the blood or lymphatic system and implant itself, much like how cancer cells do.


Where Does Endometriosis Occur

The most typical endometriosis sites are:

  • Ovaries, fallopian tubes
  • Ligaments that support the uterus 
  • The posterior cul-de-sac, i.e., the space between the uterus and rectum
  • The anterior cul-de-sac, i.e., the space between the uterus and bladder
  • The outer surface of the uterus
  • The intestines, rectum, bladder, vagina, cervix, vulva, and abdominal surgery scars.

Endometriosis Symptoms

The following are the most typical endometriosis symptoms, but each woman may experience these symptoms differently or not at all. Endometriosis symptoms can include:

  • Pain, particularly painful menstrual cramps that may be felt in the lower back or abdomen
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Abnormal or protracted menstruation
  • Infertility
  • During menstruation, painful urination occurs
  • Major period cramps, painful bowel movements
  • Other digestive issues such diarrhoea, constipation, or nausea

Stages Of Endometriosis

The American Society of Reproductive Medicine has created a system for classifying or staging endometriosis. Following is a classification of the stages:

  • Stage 1: Minimal
  • Stage 2: Mild
  • Stage 3: Moderate
  • Stage 4: Severe

The location, quantity, depth, and size of the endometrial tissue determine the stage of endometriosis. Specific standards comprise:

  • The amount to which the tissue has spread
  • The disease’s involvement of pelvic structures
  • How severe the pelvic adhesions are
  • The fallopian tube obstruction

Endometriosis’s stage does not always correspond to its severity, risk of infertility, or symptomatology. For instance, a woman in stage 1 can be in excruciating pain, whereas a woman in stage 4 might not have any symptoms.

Endometriosis Treatment

Your doctor will choose a specific endometriosis therapy based on:

  • Your general well-being and medical background
  • Current signs and symptoms
  • Size of the illness
  • Your tolerance for particular treatments, operations, or drugs
  • Expectations about how the disease will progress
  • Your preference or opinion
  • Whether you want to get pregnant or not

Most doctors concur that if symptoms are minor, only pain medication is required for endometriosis treatment. Moreover, treatment options for endometriosis generally include:

  • Watchful waiting to track the progression of the illness
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen or other over-the-counter analgesics, are used to treat pain.

Hormone endometriosis treatment, such as:

  • Oral contraceptives that inhibit ovulation and decrease menstrual flow by combining oestrogen and progestin (a synthetic form of progesterone).
  • Using progestins
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists cause a type of “medical menopause” by stopping the production of ovarian hormones.
  • A synthetic form of testosterone called danazol (a male hormone)

Surgical endometriosis treatment: 

  • Laparoscopy: A minor surgical technique in which a laparoscope, a thin tube with a lens and a light, is introduced through an incision in the abdominal wall; the doctor may frequently remove the endometrial growths using the laparoscope to see into the pelvic area.
  • To remove as much of the dislodged endometrial as possible without harming healthy tissue, a laparotomy is performed.
  • Surgery to remove the uterus and perhaps the ovaries is known as a hysterectomy.

Tips To Ease The Pain Of Endometriosis

The following straightforward advice can help reduce endometriosis pain:

  • Meditate, unwind, and rest
  • Take a hot bath
  • Prevent constipation
  • Exercise regularly
  • Put a heating pad or hot water bottle on your stomach

Sometimes, a combination of treatments is utilised, such as hormone therapy along with conservative surgery (laparoscopy or laparotomy).

In addition to conventional medical and surgical endometriosis treatments, some women can benefit from complementary therapy. These consist of:

  • Traditional Chinese medicines
  • Nutritional methods
  • Homoeopathy Management of allergies
  • Immune stimulation

It is critical to completely go over any or all of these therapies with your doctor because some of them can interfere with the efficacy of others.


How serious is endometriosis?

Endometriosis can cause pain, sometimes severe, especially during menstrual periods. Fertility problems can also develop.

What were your first symptoms of endometriosis?

Painful periods (dysmenorrhea), pelvic pain and cramping begins before and extend several days into a menstrual period, pain with intercourse, pain with bowel movements or urination, excessive bleeding, and infertility.

What happens if endometriosis is left untreated?

If left untreated, endometriosis can progress and become severe, which can lead to other conditions such as infertility. Endometriosis can also increase your risk of certain cancers.

How can endometriosis be treated?

Most endometriosis can be treated with laparoscopic endometriosis surgery. In laparoscopic surgery, your surgeon inserts a slender viewing instrument (laparoscope) through a small incision near your navel and inserts instruments to remove endometrial tissue through another small incision.

What is Endo belly?

Endo belly is the colloquial term for abdominal distension caused by endometriosis. Unlike the short-term bloating that sometimes accompanies your period, endo belly is much more severe, and has triggering physical, mental, and emotional symptoms.

Cover Image Credit: Freepik.com



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